INNOVATION ET BREVETS
Econométrie de la Propriété industrielle

Grand Amphithéâtre Lumière - Lyon
14 & 15 Mai 1998

Résumés des interventions / Abstracts

Le Secteur pharmaceutique
THE CROSS-CITATION PATTERN IN MEDICINAL PRODUCTS' PATENTS: WHAT DOES IT SHOW?

V. Cano-Fernandez, M. Sanchez-Padron, E. Los Arcos, E. Perez-Moriana
Departemento de Economia Applicada
Universidad de la Laguna
Camino de la Hornera s/n
La Laguna - 38071 TENERIFE (Spain)


One of the avenues for further research opened up by the first results already obtained in the work in progress for the other paper proposed for this Conference ("Learning from patent survivals"), stems from the finding that the most heavily cited patents belong to medicinal products or related IPC classes. Although this need not cause surprise, the nature and function of the citation pattern in this field deserves attention beyond the limited space and content of the other paper proposed. In particular, we think that, information permitting, the following questions should be examined:

(1) How long is the delay (if any, see later) that the approval process of medicinal products causes between the time protection is granted and the time the new drug can be placed on the market? Is this delay deleted related to specific medicament IPC subclasses?

(2) To what extent have innovators forestalled the shortening of their period of monopoly by securing patent protection with broad claims for therapeutic usefulness that are focused by subsequent applications making narrower and more specific claims?

(3) Does the cross-citation pattern in this field indicate the existence of a therapeutically driven technological path? Or is this pattern related more to the kind of considerations made in (2).

(4) How large is the dead weight loss associated with particular medicinal product?

While the first question may seen fairly straightforward, the information needed to examine the second, third and fourth questions will require not only expert opinion but it may happen that the answers obtained will be at best suggestive of the effects at work. However, bearing in mind that "in Guell and Fischbaum it was clearly established that the allocative inefficiency in the prescription drug industry is persavive. The deadweight associated with monopoly control of this industry was shown [for the U.S.A.] to be as high as 60% of sales" (Guell 1997:197), and that the empirical evidence for Europe with respect to this point is rather scattered and often of a qualitative nature, we think that our attempt can be justified by the potential relevance of our analysis for the design of medicament policies which are increasingly being proposed as one of the main means for health spending cuts.

CORPORATE COLLABORATION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY: TOO MUCH PATENT CO-OWNERSHIP MAY BE A PROBLEM FOR SMES

P.-B. Joly, M.-A. de Looze
INRA/SERD
UPMF
BP 47
38040 Grenoble Cedex 09

One of the most striking characteristics of biotechnology is the number of alliances between firms. This feature has been studied a lot (see Joly, ed.) ; some prominent academic fellows consider that the locus of innovation has mooved from the firm to the network (Powell et al., 1996).

In such a situation, the question of patents is at stake. As economic theory shows, a clear definition of property rights is necessary for the market relationships to be viable (Teece, 1986). However, the different aspects of the links between patents and collaboration are complex. For instance :
- in some situations of pooled research, what is the optimal distribution of the property of the results amongst the different partners? What is the efficieney of the property schemes actually used ?
- what about the incentives for further innovations in some situations of joint property ?
- what is the specific position of SMES in such contexts ?

These are the main questions addressed in this paper. The analysis is based on two complementary tools :
- face-to-face interviews in French and Switz firms : the objectives of such interviews were to have a clear view of the way firms manage their property rights in the context of collaboration and to identify some of the main problems encountered and the way they have been overcome.
- a scientometric analysis which helps to understand the profile of collaboration for scientific publications and for patents.

In the first part of this paper, we report the scientometric results. We show that collaboration is asymmetrically distributed ; SMES have a higher propensity to collaborate than other firms. This original result is not very surprising since other works have clearly shown that to innovate, SMES have to develop networks of collaborations (Saviotti et al.), However, the question here is how for such a feature is an davantage or a weakness. The results of the interviews which are exploited in the second part of the paper highlight some of the problems which may stem from such a situation.

RETURNS TO  INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE PHARMACEUTICALS SECTOR

D. Bosworth, H. Mahdian, G. Jobome
Manchester School of Management - UMIST
PO Box 88

M60 1QD - Manchester (UK)This paper explores the relationship between intellectual property and firm performance in the pharmaceuticals sector. It examines the changing IP base of a number of the major pharmaceuticals companies that declare their accounts in the UK. It demonstrates how the IP of the company is related not only to the internal R&D effort but also to take-over, merger and divestment activities. In addition to a review of the literature, the study provides long-term case study evidence for a number of firms, before undertaking econometric estimation of a panel data set of UK pharmaceutical companies. There are econometric estimates not only of the relationship between patenting and R&D, but also of market valuation (Tobin q) functions. The results emphasise not only the overall contribution of R&D and IP to company performance, but also the degree of risk that the firms face when undertaking investments.

L'UTILISATION DES BREVETS DANS LE SECTEUR DE LA CHIMIE AU MEXIQUE

H. Egu
Université de Rennes I
CREREG
1-7 place Hoche
36036 RENNES

Les firmes utilisent de façon très diverse les outils proposés par les lois de protection de la propriété industrielle. Un premier type d’entreprise recourt de façon massive à l’utilisation du brevet en combinant leur politique de propriété industrielle à leur stratégie de recherche et à leur stratégie commerciale. Une autre catégorie d’entreprises ne considère ces lois que comme une aide juridique secondaire. Enfin, certaines n’utilisent jamais les outils offerts par les lois de la protection de la propriété industrielle. Ces différences de comportement trouvent des explications sectorielles, nationales mais tiennent aussi de la philosophie et de l’organisation interne de chaque firme. Au Mexique, le renforcement des mécanismes de protection devrait être bénéfique autant pour les entreprises mexicaines que pour les entreprises étrangères. Néanmoins, la nouvelle loi de propriété industrielle n’a pas été suivie d’une augmentation des dépôts de brevets par les entreprises mexicaines et ne semble pas avoir influencé l’accroissement des activités de recherche et développement (R&D) au sein de ces entreprises.

En décrivant les stratégies de protection des innovations par les entrepreneurs du secteur de la chimie au Mexique nous essaierons de voir pourquoi on est amené à faire cette conclusion. Après avoir évoqué les aspects généraux liés au sujet de la propriété industrielle, nous caractériserons selon plusieurs critères les entreprises qui utilisent le plus les brevets pour protéger les résultats de leurs innovations (1). Ensuite, nous expliquerons pourquoi le nombre de demandes de brevets par des entreprises mexicaines est aussi faible et pourquoi ces entreprises privilégient souvent le secret pour assurer la protection de leurs innovations. Et enfin, dans une dernière partie, nous montrerons que l’intensité de recherche d’une entreprise n’est pas le seul déterminant du nombre de brevets qu’elle sollicite mais qu’intervient aussi son degré d’ouverture vis à vis de l’extérieur. En conclusion, nous évoquerons les conséquences de la faible utilisation des brevets par les entreprises mexicaines et les effets de la nouvelle loi de propriété industrielle de 1991, réformée en 1994.

(1) Nous utiliserons pour ceci les résultats de l’enquête sur le secteur de la chimie mexicaine réalisée fin 1994 par la UAM-Xochimilco en collaboration avec l’ORSTOM ainsi que les comptes-rendus d’entretiens que nous avons réalisés auprès de 25 entreprises (nationales et étrangères) du secteur de la chimie au Mexique